李攀峰. 煤层底板隐蔽水害危险源效应与定位实验研究[J]. 煤田地质与勘探, 2021, 49(4): 178-184. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-1986.2021.04.021
引用本文: 李攀峰. 煤层底板隐蔽水害危险源效应与定位实验研究[J]. 煤田地质与勘探, 2021, 49(4): 178-184. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-1986.2021.04.021
LI Panfeng. Hazard source effect and location experiment of concealed water disaster in coal seam floor[J]. COAL GEOLOGY & EXPLORATION, 2021, 49(4): 178-184. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-1986.2021.04.021
Citation: LI Panfeng. Hazard source effect and location experiment of concealed water disaster in coal seam floor[J]. COAL GEOLOGY & EXPLORATION, 2021, 49(4): 178-184. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-1986.2021.04.021

煤层底板隐蔽水害危险源效应与定位实验研究

Hazard source effect and location experiment of concealed water disaster in coal seam floor

  • 摘要: 近年来隐蔽于煤层底板的导水陷落柱和断层突水已造成多个矿井被淹,给企业带来巨大经济损失和安全威胁。为查明上述隐蔽危险源的水文地质效应,探索其定位方法,根据华北石炭–二叠纪煤田的水文地质条件,进行危险源位于测区内部的沙槽实验研究。实验显示:流场稳定后隐伏陷落柱效应表现为水头、水温和离子浓度等值线均呈同心的闭合圈状,危险源位于最大等值线闭合圈内;在危险源上游区水头等值线密度变小,下游区密度变大;温度和离子浓度等值线分布则相反,在上游区等值线密度变大,下游区密度变小。隐伏断层的效应表现为水头、水温和离子浓度的等值线均呈平行线状,危险源位于2条最大平行线之间。同样,水头等值线在危险源的下游区密度变大,上游区密度变小;温度和离子浓度等值线则相反。2种危险源的温度和离子浓度最大等值线范围都远大于水头等值线的范围和危险源的实际尺寸,而危险源实际位置都靠近等值线密度大的一侧。根据实验结果,提出图解法和流场拟合法2种定位危险源的方法,其误差都不大于6 m。本文关于危险源效应的检测方法可用于华北石炭–二叠纪煤矿底板隐蔽导水陷落柱或断层在薄层灰岩含水层中水头、温度和离子浓度效应的检测,为其定位和治理提供依据。

     

    Abstract: The hydro-hazards, water-conductive collapse columns and water inrush from faults, hidden in coal seam floor have caused many coal mines flooded in North China, bringing huge economic losses and safety threats to enterprises. In order to study the hydrogeological effects of the hydro-hazards and hazards locating technology, the sand trough simulation experiments in which the hazard sources are located inside the measurement area are conducted based on the hydrogeological conditions of Carboniferous-Permian coalfields in North China. The experiments show that, when the hydraulic field becomes stable, the effects of collapse columns are manifested by the concentric circles of the water head, temperature and solute concentration contours, with the hazards located in the maximum contour circles. Water head contours are denser in the downstream of the hazard source than those in the upstream, while the contours of temperature and solute concentration are denser in the upstream than those in the downstream. The effects caused by hidden faults present parallel contours, and the hazards are between the two maximum parallel lines. Similarly, the density of water head contours increases in the downstream region of the hazard source, while the density decreases in the upstream region. The temperature and concentration contours are reversed.. The areas constrained by the maximum contours of water temperature and solute concentration for the two hazard sources are much bigger than those constrained by water head contours, and the real size of the hazard sources. Both the sources lay closely to the zone with denser contours. The graphic method and flow-field fitting method to search hazards are proposed in this paper according to the experiments, both of which have an error of no more than 6 m. The technology for hydrogeological effect detection is suitable for detecting water head, temperature and solute concentration in the hidden water-conductive collapse columns or faults in the thin limestone aquifer of Taiyuan Formation presented by Ordovician karst water in Carboniferous-Permian Coalfields in North China, providing a basis for locating and controlling groundwater hazards.

     

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