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黄河流域陕北煤炭开采区厚砂岩对覆岩采动裂隙发育的影响及采煤保水建议

王双明 魏江波 宋世杰 王生全 孙涛

王双明,魏江波,宋世杰,等. 黄河流域陕北煤炭开采区厚砂岩对覆岩采动裂隙发育的影响及采煤保水建议[J]. 煤田地质与勘探,2022,50(12):1−11 doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.22.08.0601
引用本文: 王双明,魏江波,宋世杰,等. 黄河流域陕北煤炭开采区厚砂岩对覆岩采动裂隙发育的影响及采煤保水建议[J]. 煤田地质与勘探,2022,50(12):1−11 doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.22.08.0601
WANG Shuangming,WEI Jiangbo,SONG Shijie,et al. Influence of thick sandstone on development of overburden mining fissures in northern Shaanxi coal mining area of Yellow River Basin and suggestions on water-preserved coal mining[J]. Coal Geology & Exploration,2022,50(12):1−11 doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.22.08.0601
Citation: WANG Shuangming,WEI Jiangbo,SONG Shijie,et al. Influence of thick sandstone on development of overburden mining fissures in northern Shaanxi coal mining area of Yellow River Basin and suggestions on water-preserved coal mining[J]. Coal Geology & Exploration,2022,50(12):1−11 doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.22.08.0601

黄河流域陕北煤炭开采区厚砂岩对覆岩采动裂隙发育的影响及采煤保水建议

doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.22.08.0601
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(41402308);榆林市科技计划重大项目(6130819001);陕西省煤炭绿色开发地质保障重点实验室重点基金项目(DZBZ2022Z-03)
详细信息
    第一作者:

    王双明,1955年生,男,陕西岐山人,中国工程院院士,从事煤田地质勘探及矿区环境保护等方面的研究.E-mail:sxmtwsm@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TD323

Influence of thick sandstone on development of overburden mining fissures in northern Shaanxi coal mining area of Yellow River Basin and suggestions on water-preserved coal mining

  • 摘要: 煤炭开采活动导致的煤层顶板覆岩地质条件变化及采动裂隙发育是损害地下关键含水层的直接原因,也是造成矿区生态环境退化的根源。煤层顶板覆岩结构中发育的厚砂岩作为一种典型的地质条件,其对覆岩采动裂隙的发育规律具有重要的影响。为此,在分析研究区主采煤层赋存地质条件及其分布规律的基础上,选择陕北煤炭开采区曹家滩煤矿主采2−2煤层顶板覆岩为地质原型,采用FLAC3D数值模拟平台模拟分析了厚砂岩不同厚度和位置对覆岩采动裂隙发育形态和发育高度的影响,并以此提出了相应的“采煤保水”建议。结果表明:研究区2−2煤层顶板覆岩中厚砂岩平均厚度25 m,距2−2煤层平均间距76 m;厚砂岩距煤层30 m时,覆岩采动裂隙表现为“矩形—L形—马鞍形”的动态变化特征,距煤层70 m时表现为“L形—倒梯形—马鞍形”变化特征,距煤层大于95 m时全程表现为“马鞍形”特征;覆岩采动裂隙最大发育高度随厚砂岩层位的升高而先减小后增大;厚砂岩厚度H≥30 m、距煤层间距L>95 m,或H≥60 m、L>60 m时,可有效阻挡采动裂隙向上发育贯穿厚砂岩;在充分考虑厚砂岩对覆岩采动裂隙发育规律的影响,选择合适的空间位置和开采阶段进行合理的覆岩减损和保水防治,实现“边采边治、边采边护”的绿色开采模式。该研究成果可为黄河流域中游陕北煤矿区煤炭开采与生态环境保护协调发展提供理论指导。

     

  • 图  研究区范围

    Fig. 1  Scope of study area

    图  研究区地质条件分布规律

    Fig. 2  Distribution law of geological conditions in the study area

    图  曹家滩井田地层柱状图

    Fig. 3  Stratigraphic histogram of Caojiatan Coal Mine

    图  曹家滩煤矿数值模型

    Fig. 4  Numerical model of Caojiatan Coal Mine

    图  覆岩破坏塑性区发育情况

    Fig. 5  Development situation of destructive plastic zone of overburden

    图  厚砂岩不同参数条件下覆岩采动裂隙发育高度变化曲线

    Fig. 6  Development height variation curve of mining fissures in overburden under different conditions

    图  厚砂岩位置与厚度对覆岩采动裂隙发育高度的影响

    Fig. 7  Influence of position and thickness of thick sandstone on development height of mining fissures in overburden

    图  厚砂岩位置与导水裂隙带的关系

    Fig. 8  Schematic diagram of the relationship between the location of thick sandstone and the water diversion fracture zone

    表  1  厚砂岩发育特征

    Table  1  Development characteristics of the thick sandstones

    钻孔号距煤层间距L/m厚度H/m岩性地层钻孔号距煤层间距L/m厚度H/m岩性地层
    JSD139.3220.84粉砂岩延安组SB2644.4319.43粉砂岩直罗组
    JSD296.5616.70粉砂岩直罗组SB463.4033.42粗砂岩直罗组
    JSD348.3012.10细砂岩延安组NBK1856.2518.25粉砂岩直罗组
    Y160.2634.70中砂岩直罗组NBK2652.1628.75中砂岩直罗组
    Y2112.7017.70粉砂岩直罗组K2-26.0929.60细砂岩延安组
    Y3114.7019.50粉砂岩直罗组K2-493.8239.54粉砂岩直罗组
    Y470.1017.40中砂岩直罗组K2-570.2524.21中砂岩直罗组
    Y5107.7030.40粉砂岩直罗组K2-6113.3028.62粉砂岩直罗组
    Y631.3014.90粉砂岩延安组K5-3204.1017.03粉砂岩直罗组
    Y762.9016.10中砂岩延安组K5-6164.0516.50粉砂岩直罗组
    H1128.9017.90中砂岩直罗组K5-981.0335.20粉砂岩直罗组
    H36.7827.80中砂岩延安组X3-1170.9126.49细砂岩直罗组
    H48.1833.64中砂岩延安组X3-2105.5547.70粉砂岩直罗组
    H517.7027.00细砂岩延安组X3-3100.4020.72细砂岩直罗组
    H617.5017.60中砂岩延安组XE780.2919.40粉砂岩直罗组
    H727.4020.40细砂岩延安组XE9100.7534.70粉砂岩直罗组
    H822.3016.80粉砂岩延安组XE21114.1526.18细砂岩直罗组
    B0766.7336.70粉砂岩直罗组#7136.2120.22粉砂岩直罗组
    B2179.5735.88细砂岩直罗组DL850.9722.90中砂岩直罗组
    B51114.0029.45粉砂岩直罗组51-2131.5622.00粉砂岩直罗组
    B5462.5916.50粗砂岩直罗组52-21.1232.27中砂岩延安组
    SB0163.7615.97粉砂岩直罗组52-497.8823.94中砂岩直罗组
    SB2341.0320.16中砂岩直罗组XB13108.1832.81中砂岩直罗组
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  数值模型中岩土层物理力学参数

    Table  2  Physical and mechanical parameters of rock and soil layers in the numerical model

    岩性弹性模量/104 MPa泊松比密度/(kg·m−3)抗拉强度/MPa黏聚力/MPa内摩擦角/(°)
    风积沙0.0020.3017200.030.0536.0
    黄土层0.0070.3018300.100.3035.1
    红土层0.0100.3118600.300.7035.0
    中砂岩0.6700.2426301.323.3033.0
    粉砂岩0.8000.2427001.202.8036.5
    细砂岩0.7000.2326501.152.5038.2
    2−2煤层0.1000.2813600.400.9033.0
    底板1.0000.2227002.004.0037.5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同特征的厚砂岩模型方案

    Table  3  Model scheme for the thick sandstones with different characteristics

    编号H/mL/m编号H/mL/m
    M13030M95030
    M23070M105070
    M330115M1150115
    M430165M1250165
    M54030M136030
    M64070M146070
    M740115M1560115
    M840165M1660165
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  实测覆岩采动裂隙发育高度

    Table  4  Measured development height of mining fissures in overburden

    钻孔号采高/m导高/m裂采比
    DZ16.0136.122.7
    LD-111.0209.719.1
    LD-210.5214.020.4
    LD-410.5215.020.5
    下载: 导出CSV
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