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重建植被视角下露天煤矿区土地复垦演替过程及管控模式研究

周伟 官炎俊

周伟,官炎俊. 重建植被视角下露天煤矿区土地复垦演替过程及管控模式研究[J]. 煤田地质与勘探,2022,50(12):65−74 doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.22.05.0387
引用本文: 周伟,官炎俊. 重建植被视角下露天煤矿区土地复垦演替过程及管控模式研究[J]. 煤田地质与勘探,2022,50(12):65−74 doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.22.05.0387
ZHOU Wei,GUAN Yanjun. Succession process and management mode of land reclamation in open-pit coal mine areas based on vegetation rehabilitation[J]. Coal Geology & Exploration,2022,50(12):65−74 doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.22.05.0387
Citation: ZHOU Wei,GUAN Yanjun. Succession process and management mode of land reclamation in open-pit coal mine areas based on vegetation rehabilitation[J]. Coal Geology & Exploration,2022,50(12):65−74 doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.22.05.0387

重建植被视角下露天煤矿区土地复垦演替过程及管控模式研究

doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.22.05.0387
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(41977415)
详细信息
    第一作者:

    周伟,1972年生,男,甘肃会宁人,博士,教授,博士生导师,从事土地利用工程与生态修复教学研究工作.E-mail:zhouw@cugb.edu.cn

    通信作者:

    官炎俊,1992年生,男,江西上饶人,博士,讲师,从事国土整治与生态修复研究工作. E-mail: guanyanjunim@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TD167;F301.24

Succession process and management mode of land reclamation in open-pit coal mine areas based on vegetation rehabilitation

  • 摘要: 重建植被在能量交换与生态循环中发挥着重要作用,其动态变化可表征煤矿区生态系统受扰动和修复的广泛细节。从植被的不同扰动状态(未扰动状态、采煤扰动状态、复垦恢复状态和修复后状态)出发,分析了煤矿区重建植被演替的6种情景:高效恢复至成熟型、低效恢复至成熟型、高效恢复而后退化型、高效恢复发展型、低效恢复发展型与无效恢复型。通过模拟重建植被发展的阶段性特征,将煤矿区土地复垦全生命周期划分为:未复垦期、土地复垦发展期(复垦初期、快速发展期和稳定发展期)和成熟期。再对不同恢复阶段的重建植被分别设置判断标准,提出煤矿区土地复垦关键保护区域的识别思路,据此确立煤矿区土地复垦管控的4种修正模式:生态保育、生态管护、生态修复、生态重建。并以黄土高原山西平朔大型露天煤矿区为研究区开展应用分析,在学习掌握重建植被发展规律基础上,通过判断土地复垦模式与矿区生态系统演变机理的适应性水平,具体落实平朔露天煤矿复垦排土场集群区生态保育、生态管护、生态修复和生态重建等4大修正模式的具体管控措施。本研究归纳了露天煤矿区重建植被动态发展的演替规律,并据此提出加强土地复垦管控的修正模式,可为国家绿色矿山建设提供方法论基础。

     

  • 图  露天煤矿开采与土地复垦过程中植被扰动动态曲线

    Fig. 1  Dynamic curve of vegetation disturbance in the process of open-pit coal mining and land reclamation

    图  矿区土地复垦关键阶段划分

    Fig. 2  Division of key stages of land reclamation in mining areas

    图  矿区土地复垦管理关键保护区划定标准

    Fig. 3  Criteria for delineating key conservation areas for land reclamation management in mining areas

    图  安太堡与安家岭煤矿区主要排土场分布

    Fig. 4  Distribution of the main dumps in the Antaibao and Anjialing coal mining areas

    图  煤矿区各排土场土地复垦管控模式分区

    Fig. 5  Zoning of land reclamation management mode for each dump site in the coal mining area

    表  1  露天煤矿区不同条件下土地复垦管控模式顺序准则

    Table  1  Sequential guidelines for land reclamation control models under different conditions in opencast coal mining areas

    复垦模式适应性演替情景类型复垦模式适应程度土地复垦管控模式类型
    生态保育生态管护生态修复生态重建
    适应复垦模式情景①高度适应ABCD
    中度适应BACD
    低度适应CBAD
    情景④高度适应BACD
    中度适应BACD
    低度适应CBAD
    不适应复垦模式情景②高度不适应DCBA
    中度不适应DCBA
    低度不适应DCAB
    情景③高度不适应DCBA
    中度不适应DCAB
    低度不适应DABC
    情景⑤高度不适应DCBA
    中度不适应DCAB
    低度不适应DABC
    情景⑥高度不适应DCBA
    中度不适应DCBA
    低度不适应DCAB
      注:A、B、C、D为土地复垦管控模式的优先顺序;A代表优先选择;D代表末端选择;B、C以优先级依次排序。
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-05-21
  • 修回日期:  2022-11-07
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