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煤层气合采地质研究进展述评

郭晨 秦勇 易同生 马东民 王生全 师庆民 鲍园 陈跃 乔军伟 卢玲玲

郭晨,秦勇,易同生,等. 煤层气合采地质研究进展述评[J]. 煤田地质与勘探,2022,50(3):42−57 doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.21.10.0573
引用本文: 郭晨,秦勇,易同生,等. 煤层气合采地质研究进展述评[J]. 煤田地质与勘探,2022,50(3):42−57 doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.21.10.0573
GUO Chen,QIN Yong,YI Tongsheng,et al. Review of the progress of geological research on coalbed methane co-production[J]. Coal Geology & Exploration,2022,50(3):42−57 doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.21.10.0573
Citation: GUO Chen,QIN Yong,YI Tongsheng,et al. Review of the progress of geological research on coalbed methane co-production[J]. Coal Geology & Exploration,2022,50(3):42−57 doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.21.10.0573

煤层气合采地质研究进展述评

doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.21.10.0573
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(42002195);陕西省教育厅一般专项科学研究计划项目(20JK0752);陕西省自然科学基础研究计划青年基金项目(2019JQ-192)
详细信息
    第一作者:

    郭晨,1988年生,男,山西晋城人,博士(后),副教授,从事煤与煤层气(瓦斯)地质教学与科研工作. E-mail:makaay_@126.com

    通信作者:

    秦勇,1957年生,男,重庆人,博士,教授,博士生导师,从事煤系矿产资源与开发地质研究工作. E-mail:yongqin@cumt.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P618.13

Review of the progress of geological research on coalbed methane co-production

  • 摘要: 煤层气合采是提高多煤层区煤层气开发效率的重要途径,但成藏作用的特殊性决定合采方式与产能效果复杂多变,高效开发面临较大挑战。我国煤层气地质工作者围绕多煤层煤层气成藏与合采可行性开展大量基础研究与工程实践,取得丰富的阶段性成果,为深化煤层气开发地质理论、推动产业发展提供有力支撑。从叠置煤层气系统成藏机理、合采地质约束条件、合采可行性判识方法、合采储层伤害4个方面,系统分析评述我国煤层气合采地质领域的最新研究进展,以期为后续研究开展、工程实施与产业建设提供参考。主要认识可概括为:(1) 深化了叠置煤层气系统成藏的层序控气机理以及成岩作用与地应力的后期改造效应;构建了煤系地下水环境化学封闭指数,为判识含气系统叠置性及流体动力条件提供了新的参数,结合流体压力剖面识别出3类含气系统叠置地质模式(增长型、衰减型和稳定型);进一步将叠置煤层气系统理念扩展到煤系气范畴,提出煤系复合储层叠置含气系统“共采兼容性”理论与方法体系,并应用于煤系气合采先导示范工程,取得初步应用成效;(2) 华北石炭−二叠系(太原−山西组)与黔西−滇东上二叠统(长兴−龙潭组)是煤层气合采研究与工程实践的热点区域(层域),压力系统及渗透性差异是合采中最受关注的地质因素。华北山西组、太原组的水动力系统与供液能力差异是制约合采效果的重要因素,黔西−滇东地区合采煤层的最大层间跨度、累计煤厚、煤体结构受到更多关注,表层水干扰是制约织金区块煤层气合采效率的关键;(3) 产能分析、物理模拟、数值模拟、产出水地球化学分析是煤层气合采可行性与干扰判识的重要方法,提出了基于产出水地球化学解析合采井产出水源和判识干扰程度的基本思路、技术图版和评价流程及基于产能曲线分峰剥离的产层贡献分析方法,技术方法的不断成熟、创新为煤层气合采方案、工艺优化与效率提升提供了有力支撑;(4) 煤层气合采对地质条件与工程扰动更为敏感,易诱发储层伤害,涉及产层暴露诱发的贾敏效应与气锁伤害,压力系统与渗透性差异诱发的应力与速度敏感伤害。均一化储层改造、分压力系统开采(分时间或分空间)、精细化排采设计与管控是降低储层伤害的有效途径。

     

  • 图  1  黔西典型向斜含煤岩系地下水封闭指数质量控制

    Fig. 1  Quality control diagram of the closed index of typical synclines in western Guizhou

    图  2  叠置煤层气系统三类地质模式

    Fig. 2  Schematic diagram of the three types of geological models of stacked CBM systems

    图  3  煤层气合采地质兼容性判识图版[69]

    Fig. 3  Template for discriminating geological compatibility of CBM co-production

    图  4  沁水盆地煤层气合层排采产出水来源交汇判识[91]

    Fig. 4  Intersecting apportionment plots of produced-water sources from co-producing CBM wells in Qinshui Basin

    图  5  黔西比德−三塘盆地煤层气井产能模式[79]

    Fig. 5  Productivity modes of CBM co-production wells in Bide-Santang Basin[79]

    图  6  叠置煤层气系统产层组合与开发优化设计流程[69]

    Fig. 6  Production layer combination and development optimization process of stacked CBM systems[69]

    表  1  部分研究者关于煤层气合采可行性阈值统计

    Table  1  Statistics on the feasibility threshold of CBM co-production by some researchers

    研究区渗透率储层压
    力(梯度)
    差/(MPa·hm−1)
    临界解吸
    压力差/
    MPa
    供液能力
    差(产液
    量,m3/d)
    顶底板
    岩性
    含气量差/
    (m3·t−1)
    单煤层厚
    度/m与
    结构
    顶底板
    厚度/m
    顶底板
    与煤层
    力学性
    质比
    含气
    饱和
    度差/%
    产气液
    面高度
    差/m
    煤层
    间距/
    m
    最大
    跨度/
    m
    沁水
    盆地
    南部樊庄
    区块[8]
    同一数量级≤0.5泥岩>5(抗张强度)
    南部寺河
    矿区[9]
    相差不大≤0.5≤15≤50
    北部寿阳
    区块[42]
    同一数量级<0.3<0.3<5泥岩、砂质泥岩>2>2(弹性模量)
    樊庄潘
    [43]
    差值≤1×10−3 μm2<0.08<0.9
    南部郑庄
    区块[44]
    套压≥0.2 MPa
    鄂尔多
    斯盆地
    东缘
    延川南
    区块[45]
    同一
    数量级
    <1.2 MPa(压力梯度同一数量级)<1.2≤5砂岩、
    泥岩
    ≥0.5≥0.5≥2(泊松比)≥10
    吴堡矿
    [10]
    同属一套水动力系统泥岩等隔水层
    柳林区
    [11]
    同一
    数量级
    <1 MPa<10泥岩、弱含水砂岩<8≥0.5<30
    临汾地
    [46]
    同一
    数量级
    <1 MPa(压力梯度同一数量级)<5砂岩、
    泥岩
    <4抗压强度差<5 MPa<10
    大宁−吉
    县区块[47]
    差异大有利,且低产水层供液<3
    临兴区
    [48]
    <启动压力梯度
    (气水倒灌阈值)
    黔西−滇
    东地区
    滇东黔西某区块[49]同一
    数量级
    ≤0.5>5
    黔西松
    河区块[50]
    <0.1剔除构
    造煤
    <100
    云南恩
    洪区块[51]
    >0.5(原生−碎裂结构煤)
    黔西−滇
    东地区[52]
    ≤0.15≤最上部煤层初始液柱压力剔除碎粒煤、糜
    棱煤
    依赖储层压力差
    黔西−滇
    东地区[53]
    据原始差异均衡改造滇东高压、低压层比值:1.08原生结构煤和碎
    裂煤
    比值:黔280
    滇120
    <50煤层累厚9 m滇60黔100
    其他
    地区
    铁法盆
    地大兴
    井田[54]
    ≤0.7<70
    阜康白杨
    河矿区[55]
    相近≤0.5相近相近非含水层较小
    出现频次101657726243334
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  油气藏多层合采物理模拟研究成果统计

    Table  2  Statistics of research on physical simulation of multi-layer co-production of oil and gas reservoirs

    研究区模拟类型渗透率差(级差)储层压力差气井配产接替方式规律合采层数油气藏类型
    青海涩北
    气田[61]
    三层合采影响产层贡献,尤其早期层间干扰,倒灌一般发生于早期增大配产将降低低渗层的产量贡献率低渗层接替高渗层早期以高渗层贡献为主,后期低渗层逐渐被动用≤4疏松砂岩气藏
    鄂尔多斯盆地大牛地气田[57]双层合采影响产层贡献,尤其早期屏蔽低压层低渗层接替高渗层效果较好,接替点压力不宜过低低渗层中后期产量贡献率上升致密砂岩气藏
    鄂尔多斯盆地苏里格气田[62]双层合采层间干扰,倒灌发生于初期增大初期配产有助于减小层间干扰低压层接替高压层控制层间初始压差致密砂岩气藏
    某区块[63]双层/三层合采,平板模型影响产层贡献与最终采收率层数越多,总体采出程度越低特低渗油藏
    四川盆地
    安岳气田[58]
    三层合采产层贡献与总采收率离边底水较近的井,不宜过早打开高渗层,可在开发后期补孔高渗层前期贡献大,低渗层贡献主要在中后期缝洞型碳酸盐岩气藏
    某气田[64]双层合采层间干扰,倒灌一般发生于初期适当增加配产有利减小层间干扰低渗气藏
    中海油荔湾
    3-1气田[65]
    三层合采封闭边界条件下合采初期产量按各层地层系数进行分配,后期按地层储量比分配凝析气藏
    某气田[66]双层合采影响产层贡献,尤其早期影响产层贡献,但弱于渗透率的影响渗透率差异越大,气藏合采的压力条件越苛刻砂岩气藏
    贵州金佳
    煤矿[67]
    四层合采,水平井高压层抑制低压层,甚至产生倒灌按储层压力由大到小递进排采递进合采能抑制层间干扰,防止倒灌煤层气藏
    滇东老厂
    区块[68]
    双层合采强烈影响
    产层贡献
    主要影响上部产层产气贡献,差异越大,干扰越强煤层气藏
    黔西织金
    区块[69]
    双层合采基于渗透率级差与压力差建立合采地质兼容性判识图版煤层气藏
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-10-18
  • 修回日期:  2021-12-01
  • 刊出日期:  2022-03-25
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-03-30

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