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正断层上盘煤与瓦斯突出特征与地应力场控制机理

曹运兴 张海洋 张震 刘高峰

曹运兴,张海洋,张震,等. 正断层上盘煤与瓦斯突出特征与地应力场控制机理[J]. 煤田地质与勘探,2022,50(4):61−69 doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.21.08.0420
引用本文: 曹运兴,张海洋,张震,等. 正断层上盘煤与瓦斯突出特征与地应力场控制机理[J]. 煤田地质与勘探,2022,50(4):61−69 doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.21.08.0420
CAO Yunxing,ZHANG Haiyang,ZHANG Zhen,et al. Characteristics of coal and gas outburst and controlling mechanism of stress field in the hanging wall of normal faults[J]. Coal Geology & Exploration,2022,50(4):61−69 doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.21.08.0420
Citation: CAO Yunxing,ZHANG Haiyang,ZHANG Zhen,et al. Characteristics of coal and gas outburst and controlling mechanism of stress field in the hanging wall of normal faults[J]. Coal Geology & Exploration,2022,50(4):61−69 doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.21.08.0420

正断层上盘煤与瓦斯突出特征与地应力场控制机理

doi: 10.12363/issn.1001-1986.21.08.0420
基金项目: 国家科技重大专项课题(2016ZX05067006-002);国家自然科学基金项目(41302126)
详细信息
    第一作者:

    曹运兴,1955年生,男,河南鲁山人,博士,教授,博士生导师,从事煤层气/瓦斯地质与工程研究. E-mail:yxcao17@126.com

    通信作者:

    刘高峰,1982年生,男,河南沁阳人,博士,副教授,博士生导师,从事瓦斯地质与煤层气开发研究.E-mail:liugaofeng82@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TD713

Characteristics of coal and gas outburst and controlling mechanism of stress field in the hanging wall of normal faults

  • 摘要: 断层带是煤与瓦斯突出发生的主要地质单元。大量煤与瓦斯突出案例统计显示,对于正断层,发生在上盘的突出次数和强度明显大于下盘,但造成这一现象的地质机理研究不多,特别是正断层上盘的地应力场在采动前后的变化规律及其对突出发生的控制机理尚未完全揭示。基于此,以河南焦作矿区中马村煤矿DF4正断层为地质模型,应用FLAC3D软件,模拟研究煤层埋深分别为660、800、1 000 m,对应3种地应力场(σ1最大主应力、σH最大水平主应力、σh最小水平主应力、σv垂向主应力)状态σ1=σHσ1=σvσv=σH=σh 条件下,采动前和掘进工作面逼近断层面过程中正断层两盘的地应力场变化规律,探索地应力分布对煤与瓦斯突出的作用。结果表明,未采动原始状态下正断层上盘的地应力值高于下盘;无论上盘巷道还是下盘巷道,在掘进工作面逼近断层过程中,断层上盘的地应力值总是高于下盘;特别是,在巷道掘进至断层面附近10 m时,原始地应力与采动应力在断层带发生积聚叠加,地应力值在断层上盘大幅度增高。采动前后地应力在正断层上盘集中升高,可能是导致正断层上盘更容易发生煤与瓦斯突出的决定性因素。此项研究可为预测和防治煤与瓦斯突出灾害提供理论依据。

     

  • 图  1  正断层模型地层剖面

    Fig. 1  Stratigraphic profile of the normal fault model

    图  2  正断层三维地质模型

    Fig. 2  Three-dimensional geological model of the normal fault

    图  3  不同埋深条件下正断层原始地应力场云图

    Fig. 3  Nephogram of the original in-situ stress field of normal faults under different buried depths

    图  4  不同埋深条件上盘煤巷掘进过程中地应力场云图

    Fig. 4  Nephogram of the stress field for tunneling in the hanging wall under different buried depths

    图  5  不同埋深条件下盘煤巷掘进过程中地应力场云图

    Fig. 5  Nephogram of the stress field for tunneling in the foot wall under different buried depths

    图  6  初始状态和掘进过程的最大应力值变化曲线

    Fig. 6  Maximum values of the in-situ stress at different tunneling locations in hanging and foot walls

    表  1  煤岩体物理力学参数

    Table  1  Physical and mechanical parameters of coal and rock

    层位
    岩性
    密度/
    (kg·m−3)
    弹性模
    量/GPa
    泊松比黏聚力/
    MPa
    抗拉强
    度/MPa
    内摩擦
    角/(°)
    中粒砂岩 2 300 23 0.30 2.2 2.4 26
    砂质泥岩 2 500 20 0.25 1.8 2.5 27
    煤层 1 450 10 0.32 1.3 1.1 18
    砂质泥岩 2 500 20 0.25 1.8 2.5 27
    细粒砂岩 2 400 25 0.30 2.8 2.6 32
    断层破碎带 1 800 1 0.35 0.2 0.01 10
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  模型的应力初始条件参数

    Table  2  In-situ stress initial condition parameters of the model

    埋深/m应力场
    状态
    地应力/MPa
    σHσhσv
    660 σ1=σH −20 −12 −16.5
    800 σ1=σv −16 −16 −20
    1 000 σv=σH=σh −25 −25 −25
      注:上覆岩层自重应力近似代替垂向主应力σv,岩石平均密度取2.5×103 kg/m3
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  断层上下盘的不同掘进位置最大地应力值

    Table  3  Maximum stress values at different tunneling locations in the hanging wall and the foot wall

    埋深和应力距断层面距离/m最大应力值/MPa
    煤巷在上盘煤巷在下盘
    上盘下盘上盘下盘
    660 m,σ1=σH 原始 22 14.0 22.0 14.0
    30 22 15.0 22.0 15.0
    20 24 17.5 22.3 15.0
    15 26 20.0 24.0 17.5
    10 30 25.0 25.0 20.0
    800 m,σ1=σv 原始 27 20.0 27.0 20.0
    30 27 20.0 27.0 22.5
    20 30 22.5 28.0 25.0
    15 32 25.0 30.5 30.0
    10 36 30.0 31.6 30.0
    1 000 m,σv=σH=σh 原始 33 24.0 33.0 24.0
    30 34 25.0 35.0 30.0
    20 40 30.0 37.0 30.0
    15 44 35.0 40.0 32.0
    10 52 40.0 40.0 32.0
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-08-10
  • 修回日期:  2021-10-30
  • 刊出日期:  2022-04-25
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-03-31

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